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What do you mean by Criminology?
Criminology is came from Latin word crimen, which defined as accusation, and from greek word logia, which means the study of, therefore criminology is a study of crime.
Literally Criminology can be defined as “a study of the criminals in a systematic way”. Criminology is that part of science that’s talks about the study of their nature, crimes, and the reason behind the crimes, prevention and detection against such crimes.
Generally criminologist looks for a wider range of areas with related to crime. Social effect is also taken into consideration by the criminologist and not only the cause behind the crime.
Criminology focuses on the following specific area
Location of crimes, frequency of crimes, types of crimes, causes of crime, social reaction to time, social and individual consequences of crimes, governmental reaction to crime, individual reaction to crime.
School of thought within Criminology
Oblivious the main objective of criminology is to find out the cause of criminal behavior and to establish humane and effective means of escaping it. To do this they gone through several school of thought within their restriction, where each school looks at different factors involve in who gives different result. The primary school of thought within criminology are as follow
• Classical school:- Classic school is based on this four basic idea
o To make any choices, individual are free from that.
o Individual or common people generally avoid pain and look for pleasure, so while committing an act they calculate the benefit against the risk or cost.
o Level of punishment must be in proportion with crime.
o One of the most important factor for determining crime is to know the certainty and swiftness of the punishment.
• Positivist School:- As per positivist school they think that internal and external factors are not in the control of the individual. It includes another causes such as environmental, biological, social & psychological causes. To study the human behavior by scientific method, positivist school was the first to apply.
• Chicago School: – Known by other name also i.e. Ecological school, during the year in 1920 at the university of Chicago in sociology department it was first developed. Environmental and psychological factor are taken into consideration to find out the reason of deviant behavior. The thought of this school are advanced in the idea of human behavior. Human being adapts to their environment are noted by this school. A negative social surroundings leads to a breakdown in the social structure. This surroundings both destroy the capability of a society to deal smoothly with the crime which results and encourage a criminal thinking or mentality in the area that drives crime within.
The various sub-topics in criminology include
Criminology includes this area of study: Crime Prevention, criminal behavior, crime statistics, domestic violence, criminal desistance & careers, deviant behavior, fear of crime, evaluation of criminal justice agencies, the international crime victim’s survey, penology, juvenile delinquency, victim ology, sociology of law, comparative criminology.
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